不同層次的無我

無我是佛法的核心主題。釋迦牟尼佛在《阿含經》中到處宣說「無我」,但是無我是什麼意思呢?釋尊入滅後,經過部派佛教五百年的演變,有十八部或二十部派的形成,相互之間,對於無我的意義產生不同的見解和爭論,有的部派主張有「即蘊我」,有的部派主張有「不可言說我」等等。如果不能掌握無我的意義,如何體證無我呢?這是一個嚴肅而必須面對的大問題。一直到西元一百五十年,有關無我的
這一議題還是爭論不休,此時龍樹菩薩出世,他深入佛法的義理,釐清無我的真正意義,著作出《中論》,全面駁斥印度外道和部派佛教對無我的錯誤見解。由於《中論》的義理深奧,後來分成中觀宗自續派(清辯)和應成派(佛護)的二種解說。到了西元六百五十年,出現了月稱菩薩的《入中論》,將《阿含經》中無我的意義,給予更細膩的分析,是印度佛教後期中觀宗應成派思想的頂峰。《中論》和《入中論》的最大貢獻,就是破除離蘊我、即蘊我、不可言說我、實質有我、真實有、自性有,揭露出無我的真正意義。《中論》和《入中論》所要破的對象,也就是人我和法我二大類,此有粗細之分,以下分成四個層次來說明。

二、四個層次的無我

(一)破離蘊我
有的人認為,我們的身心五蘊背後有個「我」,這個我像是主人,色、受、想、行、識像是僕人,供主人指揮使用,這種的我,是身心之外一個自主的我,稱之為「離蘊我」,這種離蘊我,又稱做「常一自在我」。當我們在禪修時,首先修出「奢摩他」,得到穩定的心,而後就要修「毗婆舍那」來觀察五蘊。首先要觀察出在自己五蘊之外,沒有離蘊的我,觀察出在身心之外沒有獨立自在的我,稱之為「常一自在
我空」。

(二)破即蘊我、實質有我
有的人認為,身心五蘊就是我,或者把心當做我,並且認為我是實質有,有實質材料,在生死中做業,並承擔果報,這種的我,就是「即蘊我」、「實質有我」。有的人認為,我不是五蘊,也不是在五蘊之外,稱之為「非即蘊、非離蘊我」或「不可言說我」,他們又認為這個我是實質有,有實質材料,推就下來,這「不可言說我」,其實還是屬於「即蘊我」。另一方面,若「不可言說我」是實質有,則必是「即蘊或離蘊」二者之一;若不是「即蘊或離蘊」二者之一,則必不是實質有。由此可以推知,若堅持「不可言說我」是非即蘊、非離蘊,則這個我必不是實質有,而是「安立有」(=假名有=假有)。在禪修時,我們要觀察出沒有即蘊我,人只是依於五蘊而安立,是「安立有」而不是「實質有」。人不是獨立自主的實質有,稱之為「自立實質有空」,這就是中觀宗應成派所說的「粗品人無我」。

(三)破真實有
有的人認為,我們所安立的「人」和「五蘊」,都是真實存在,這意思是說,都是表裡如一,不是以心增上安立,這種真實有的見解,屬於中觀宗應成派的粗品法我執。
在禪修時,我們要觀察出人或五蘊,都是「以心增上安立」,這意思是說,我們在觀察時,都有主觀的色彩加到對象上,因而所看到的人和實際的人有出入,所看到的五蘊和實際的五蘊有出入,也就是表裡不如一,所以不是真實存在,稱之為「真實有空」或「諦空」,這就是中觀宗應成派所說的「粗品法無我」(在自續派則是細品的法無我)。

(四)破自性有
有的人認為,我們所安立的「人」和「五蘊」都是純客觀地從自方存在,觀察時沒有干擾到對象(人、五蘊),對象都是自性有,都是自相有,這種見解,就是細品的法我執。禪修時,我們要觀察出人或五蘊,都是「唯以分別安立」,這意思是說,我們觀察人或五蘊時,除了主觀所加的色彩之外,在觀察過程當中,還影響到所觀察的對象(人、五蘊),因而對象不是純客觀地從自方存在,不是自性有、不是自相有,稱之為「自性空」、「自相空」。
觀察出人不是從自方存在,不是自性有、不是自相有,稱之為「人自性空」、「人自相空」,這個就是應成派的「細品人無我」。觀察出五蘊不是從自方存在、不是自性有、不是自相有,稱之為「五蘊自性空」、「五蘊自相空」,這個就是應成派的「細品法無我」。高26cm

 

ifferent levels of selflessness

I was the core theme of Buddhism. Sakyamuni Buddha in the “Arabian scriptures” everywhere declared “no”, but no I mean? After the five years of evolution of Buddhism, eighteen or twenty schools were formed, and different views and arguments were made on each other's meaning. Some schools advocated the idea of ​​” That is to say, “some of the schools advocate” can not talk about me “and so on. If you can not grasp the meaning of non-me, how the body without me? This is a serious and must face the big problem. Until one hundred and fifty years AD, the one without me
This topic is still debated, when the Dragon Bodhisattva born, he in-depth Dharma's righteousness, to clarify the true meaning of non-I, made a “theory”, a comprehensive refutation of Indian Buddhism and the Ministry of Buddhism without my misconceptions. As the “theory” of the esoteric, later divided into Zhongguo cases were renewed (Qing argued) and should be sent (Buddhism) two explanations. In the six hundred and fifty years of AD, there appeared the theory of “entering into China” on the Bodhisattva, which gave the meaning of “A Hanjing” without me, and gave a more delicate analysis. peak. The most important contribution of “On Theory” and “On Theory” is to break away from me, that is to say, I can not speak of me, the essence of me, the real, the self, revealing the true meaning of me. In the “theory” and “into the theory” to break the object, that is, I and the law I two categories, this has the thickness of the points, the following is divided into four levels to illustrate.

Second, the four levels of non-me

(A) break away from Yun me
Some people think that our body and mind behind a five “I”, this I like the master, color, by, think, line, image is a servant, for the owner to use, this is outside the body and mind An independent I, called “from Yun I”, this from Yun I, also known as “often a free in my”. When we are meditating, we first cultivate the “Mo-mo”, get a stable heart, and then repair the “Vipassana” to observe the five Yun. First of all, to observe the five Yun in their own outside, not from the Yun I, observed in the body and mind is not independent of me, called “Chang Yi Zi
I am empty. ”

(B) break that Yun me, the real me
Some people think that the five minds of mind and body is me, or the heart as I, and that I is real, there is material in life and death to do business, and bear fruit, this me, that is, “Yun I” I have the essence. ” Some people think that I am not five Yun, not in the five Yun outside, called “non-Yun Yun, non-Yun Yun me” or “can not speak I”, they think that I have real material, This “can not speak to me” actually falls into the category of “implication”. On the other hand, if I can not say that I am a substance, it must be one of “Yun” or “Li Yun”. If it is not one of “Yun” or “Yun Yun”, it is not real. It can be deduced that if I insist that “I can not speak to me” is non-implicative and non-implicit, then I am not real, but “Anli has” (= false). In meditation, we have to observe that there is no Yun I, people are only in accordance with the five Yun and An Li, is “An Li has” rather than “real”. People are not independent of the real, called “self-reliance is free”, which is Zhongguo Zongcheng said “crude people without me.”

(C) breaking the real there
Some people think that the “person” and the “five virtues” we have established are real, which means that they are all the same, not to increase the safety of the heart, this true and some insights, Into the crude method of law enforcement.
In meditation, we have to observe a person or five Yun, are “to the heart by Anritsu,” which means that we observe, there are subjective color added to the object, so see the people and The actual person is different from the actual five to see the difference between the five Yun and the actual, that is, not as good as one, it is not real, called “real free” or “empty”, which is Zhongguancun should The “lawless without me” (in the self-renewal is a fine law without me).

(D) broken from the sex
Some people think that the “person” and the “five virtues” that we establish are purely and objectively present from their own side. When we observe them, they do not interfere with the object (person, five characters). All the objects are self- , This view is fine law enforcement. When we meditate, we observe that the person or the five characters are “only to stand separately.” This means that when we observe people or five things, in addition to the subjective color, in the course of observation, The object is not objectively self-existence, not self-existence, not self-phase, and is called “self-space” and “self-phase space”.
Observed that people do not exist from their own side, not self-existence, not self-phase has, called “human self-space”, “people from the phase empty”, this is the school should be “fine people without me.” It is not self-existence, not self-phase. It is called “five-nature self-emptiness” and “five-phase self-phase emptyness”.  26cm H 

釋迦牟尼_無我 26 cm / Sakyamuni

HK$8,800.00Price
Color: white
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